Researcher URI and Content Negotiation Mechanism for Linked Data

Last update 2014-12-15

Overview

For the next generation of the web, we prepare for the architecture of the Web and the Semantic Web explained in Architecture of the World Wide Web and Cool URIs. Any of the real objects can be represented as URI in this context. These URIs will be dereferenced to the document of the object if it is necessary. The concept of researcher that Researcher Name Resolver handles with should be clearly separated from the concept of document of the researcher. We call the condept of the researcher as "researcher entity" and the concept of document of the researcher as "generic researcher document". These URIs are processed appropriately by Researcher Name Resolver. Researcher URIs will be dereferenced to the generic researcher document URI. The generic researcher document URIs will be content-negotiated to deliver appropriate document for the request.

Researcher URI and generic document of the researcher

The figure below shows how Researcher Name Resolver process the researcher entityURIs and the generic researcher document URIs.

 

Researcher Name Resolver, URI 303 Redirection and Content Negotiation

 

In the Researcher Name Resolver, researcher entity URI consists of the prefix URL string and suffix 13 digits number. This 13 digits number is called Researcher Name Resolver ID, which is assigned to registered researcher.

For example, if Researcher Name Resolver ID is 1000012345678, URI of the researcher is represented as follows:

 

http://rns.nii.ac.jp/nr/1000012345678

 

If you get access to the URI, Researcher Name Resolver will redirect your request to the generic researcher document URI of the researcher. This is called "303 redirect" in the "Cool URIs". For the same Researcher Name Resolver ID, URI of the generic researcher

document is represented as follows:

 

http://rns.nii.ac.jp/d/nr/1000012345678

 

The generic researcher document URI will be put in the "Location" header in the HTTP response with "303 See Other" status code. Then, you can get access to the generic researher document URI. Researcher Name Resolver will content negitiate to the request. Current Researcher Name Resolver prepares three types of document format, i.e, English menu researcher document in HTML, Japanese menu researcher document in HTML, and RDFresearcher document in RDF/XML. You can speficy the document format in the HTTP request with "Accept" and "Accpet-Language" headers. As a result of the content negotiation, an appropriate document will be sent with a "Content-Location" header in which the URI of the type of document is put. The URI of these types consists of the generic researcher document URI as a prefix and suffixes which represent a type of content, i.e., ".en.html", ".ja.html", and ".rdf".

 

A figure below shows a sequence diagram of "303 redirect" and "content negotiation".

 

Researcher Name Resolver URI Redirection Sequence

 

For example, if you already know the Researcher Name Resolver ID "1000010332769" or the researcher entity URI "http://rns.nii.ac.jp/nr/1000010332769", you can check the response of Researcher Name Resolver by a unix command.

 

$ curl -H "Accept: application/rdf+xml" -L -I "http://rns.nii.ac.jp/nr/1000010332769"

 

 

You can also get a document by the following command:

 

$ curl -H "Accept: application/rdf+xml" -L "http://rns.nii.ac.jp/nr/1000010332769"

 

What is RDF researcher document conceptually showing about?

As shown in the following figure, RDF researcher document describes researcher information. The first figure shows a part of the researcher information in RDF. In the figure, circles mean URI, and boxes mean literal. "http://rns.nii.ac.jp/nr/1000012345678" mean Researcher URI, which is the central concept of this RDF document. Researcher URI is described in three aspects, i.e., researcher name and affiliation, other names, and identities. Researcher's name is described with "foaf:firstName" nad "foaf:lastName". In the case of Japanese name, first name and last name is written in Chinese characters. In mostly cases, phonetic transliterate words in Japanese which is called "Yomi" is written with the Chinese characters. So, Yomi of the first name and the last name is adittionally written in. Institution name, department name, and job title of the researcher are also described. If the researher have other names which is written in research papers, a blank node in RDF is created and linked with a "owl:sameAs" predicate, then is described with other names. The blank node is typed with "rns:Researcher" class. Identities of the researcher is also represented. Of course, the Researcher Name Resolver ID is one of the identities. The other important identity is KAKENHI researcher number because Researcher Name Resolver mostly rely on the KAKENHI database in terms of registrants.

 

 

RDF researcher document concept (Researcher Name)

 

 

The other important aspect of the researcher information is external links. In the following figirue, there are two types of external links, i.e., direct links and search links. If the researcher has his/her own page of the external database on the web or URIs of external services, Researcher URI is linked to the URI by"owl:sameAs" predicate. These links will construct a network of the same person. On the other hand, search links is not exactly related to the same person, but it's useful. It's like most of people search for person information in search engines. Names and affiliation strings are put in the search links.

 

 

RDF Researcher Document Description (External Links)

RDF/XML format of RDF researcher docuement

The following RDF/XML text is a full element example. But it's a fake. It is enough to explain what these elements mean.

 

 

 

 

Descriptions of the elements are here.

Element (ordered in example) Description
rns:Researcher/@rdf:about
Researcher type of Researcher Name Resolver is declared to the resource
  dcterms:abstract
    rns:Document
Document type of Resercher Name Resolver
      dcterms:title
Title of this document
      dcterms:hasFormat/@rdf:resource
Document of the researcher has this resource as in a format
  foaf:lastName[/@xml:lang="ja"]
Lastname of the researcher in Japanese
  foaf:firstName[/@xml:lang="ja"]
Firstname of the researcher in Japanese
  rns:lastNameYomi[/@xml:lang="ja"]
Phonetic transliterate of lastname of the researcher in Japanese
  rns:firstNameYomi[/@xml:lang="ja"]
Phonetic transliterate of firstname of the researcher in Japanese
  foaf:lastName[/@xml:lang="en"]
Lastname of the researcher in English (mostly phonetic transliterate in roman characters)
  foaf:firstName[/@xml:lang="en"]
Firstname of the researcher in English (mostly phonetic transliterate in roman characters)
  owl:sameAs
The same person (if the researher have other names, rns:Researcher is attached to the other rns:Researcher describing other names)
    rns:Researcher
Researcher type of Researcher Name Resolver (in this context, other names are described)
      foaf:lastName[/@xml:lang="ja"]
Other lastname of the researcher in Japanese
      foaf:firstName[/@xml:lang="ja"]
Other firstname of the researcher in Japanese
      rns:lastNameYomi[/@xml:lang="ja"]
Phonetic transliterate of other lastname of the researcher in Japanese
      rns:firstNameYomi[/@xml:lang="ja"]
Phonetic transliterate of other firstname of the researcher in Japanese
      foaf:lastName[/@xml:lang="en"]
Other lastname of the researcher in English (mostly phonetic transliterate in roman characters)
      foaf:firstName[/@xml:lang="en"]
Other firstname of the researcher in English (mostly phonetic transliterate in roman characters)
  rns:institution
Affiliated institution
  rns:department
Affiliated department of the institution
  rns:title
Job title in the institution of the researcher
  rns:researcherNumber
Researcher Name Resolver ID of the researcher (researcher identity of this service)
  kaken:researcherNumber
The KAKENHI Researcher Number of the researcher (external service ID)
  owl:sameAs/@rdf:resource
The same person (in external services). A value of the rdf:resoruce attribute is an URI of the researcher in external services. Target services cover KAKEN, CiNii, researchmap, J-Global, ResearcherID, Campus directories.
  rdfs:seeAlso/@rdf:resource
Referenceable link of the researcher in external services. A value of the rdf:resource attribute is an URL to search with the researcher's name in Japanese or English and optionally institution name in Japanese. External service includes Google, Google Scholar, CiNii, researchmap, J-Global, WebcatPlus.

 

 

Here is a node graph of the above example. (Click to view a larger image)

 

RDF example node graph